Fresh coconut water has more nutritional value than coconut water in a sealed container, according to a study by the Bureau of Quality and Safety of Food under the Department of Medical Sciences.
Samples of fresh coconut water, collected from stores in Ratchaburi, Nonthaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Samut Sakhon and Samut Songkhram provinces, and seven brands of hermetically sealed containers from convenience stores were analysed for nutritional value, including minerals, vitamins, sugar, hormones, pH And residues of pesticides.
The analysis showed that calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, zinc, selenium and chloride in fresh coconut water were greater than that found in coconut water in a sealed container.
In particular, the average amount of potassium and chloride was 133.81 – 215.20 milligrams per 100 grams.
Vitamin B2 found in fresh coconut water was less than 0.01mg per 100 millilitre, but not found in processed coconut water. This is because vitamin B2 is water-soluble and is easily destroyed by light. Vitamin B3 also was found in average amounts of 0.04 – 0.1mg per 100g because Vitamin B3 is more resistant to heat and light.
Three types of sugars — glucose, fructose and sucrose — were found with an average amount of 1.28 – 2.61 grams per 100ml. The volume is less than 1.0 nanograms per ml.
Meanwhile, testosterone is less than 0.2 nanograms per ml.
The pH value was found to be in the range of 4.9 – 5.4 and no residue of the chemical was detected.
Supakit Sirilak, chief of the Department of Medical Sciences, said that the study showed coconut water had a high content of minerals and mineral salts.
The glucose, fructose and sucrose found in fresh coconut water was consistent with the research that fresh coconut water had higher glucose than other sugars (approximately 50 per cent of total sugar) and their sugar content depended on the age of the coconut. Young coconuts will have a higher sugar content than mature coconuts. Coconut water in a sealed container has high sucrose, which may come from sugar added to it during the production process to flavour or add sweetness. Consuming water from 1 coconut, or 1 bottle (approximately 200 – 300ml) will yield 7 – 25 grams of sugar.
The Department of Health recommends no more than 32 grams of sugar per day, so people should consume only one coconut per day, which helps to maintain good blood sugar levels.
Also, research by the Food and Agriculture Organization found that good quality coconut water should have a pH between 5.0 – 5.4.
Studies on the effects of consuming coconut water on the reproductive system have shown that it can stimulate the endocrine system, which regulates the secretion of sex hormones, and has an effect on the reproductive organs of the female and male along with helping to make the sperm stronger.
Therefore, drinking coconut water may be one of many factors for enhancing sexual function which can be the result of many minerals in coconut water, such as potassium, zinc, manganese and vitamins that help the circulatory system work better, resulting in a healthy body, the study said.
CDC says vaccinated people can travel, should wear masks
Health & BeautyApr 03. 2021Passengers wear protective masks sit on a Boeing Co. 737-800 during an American Airlines Group Inc. flight departing from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). Photographer: Patrick T. Fallon/Bloomberg
By Bloomberg · Josh Wingrove, Fiona Rutherford
Fully vaccinated people can resume recreational travel in the U.S. yet should still wear a mask and avoid crowds, according to new advice from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC released its long-awaited travel guidance on Friday amid the accelerating pace of vaccinations in the U.S., even as more contagious variants threaten to ignite a new wave of covid-19 cases and as millions of Americans hit the skies anyhow.
The guidance says that fully vaccinated people don’t need a test, and don’t need to quarantine, when traveling domestically. For international travel, they don’t need a test unless it’s required by their destination country and don’t need to quarantine once back in the U.S., but should get tested before boarding their return flight.
The head of the CDC held out the promise of travel in asking people to get vaccinated when they can. “Vaccines can help us return to the things we love about life, so we encourage every American to get vaccinated as soon as they have the opportunity,” CDC Director Rochelle Walensky said in a statement.
All people, even if vaccinated, should still wear masks on planes, the CDC said. The agency considers someone fully vaccinated two weeks after their final shot.
The CDC previously released guidance for what vaccinated people can do. It said fully vaccinated people can gather privately together without masks, or visit one unvaccinated household — such as vaccinated grandparents visiting the home of a child and grandchildren. However, it urged vaccinated Americans to keep wearing masks in public and to avoid crowds. At the time, the CDC didn’t change its travel recommendations.
The CDC still discourages “nonessential domestic travel” by those who aren’t fully vaccinated. Those people should still get tested one to three days before travel, and again three to five days afterward. They should stay home and quarantine for seven days after traveling, or 10 days if they don’t get a test, the CDC says.
U.S. air travel has begun rebounding — 1.6 million people passed through TSA checkpoints on Thursday, well above the 124,000 who did so a year before yet still below the 2.4 million from the same day in 2019.
Covid-19 cases have started rising again in the U.S., with 79,000 new cases recorded on Thursday. Walensky warned this week that Americans can’t abandon mitigation efforts, saying she is scared of “impending doom” as a fourth wave begins to crest. More than 553,000 people have died of the virus in the U.S., amid more than 30 million cases.
By Syndication Washington Post, Bloomberg · Robert Langreth
Pfizer Inc.’s coronavirus vaccine remained highly effective after six months, according to new long-term results that the company said could be used to seek an expansion of its regulatory status.
Follow-up data from a final-stage trial of 46,307 people showed the vaccine was 91.3% effective in preventing symptomatic cases starting one week after the second dose through as long as six months. In the U.S. alone, the efficacy rate was 92.6%, according to a report Thursday by Pfizer and its partner BioNTech SE.
At the same time, the companies provided some of the first data on how their vaccine might handle the immune-evading B.1.351 variant that arose in South Africa. Nine of 800 trial participants in that country got sick with covid, including six infected with B.1.351. However, all were in the placebo group, suggesting the shot retains efficacy against the variant.
Albert Bourla, Pfizer’s Chief Executive Officer, said in the statement that the results “position us to submit a Biologics License Application to the U.S. FDA.”
The vaccine has already secured an emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration, which means it’s only in effect until the emergency ends and it can be revoked or changed at any time. Formal approval is for the long term.
Pfizer shares rose 0.5% in premarket trading while BioNTech gained as much as 1.4%. Pfizer will soon share the data with regulators around the world and submit it for publication in a scientific journal, Pfizer spokeswoman Amy Rose said in an email.
The six-month result is only slightly lower than the 95% efficacy rate that was originally found for the vaccine, based on much shorter term results. The two-shot vaccine also prevented all or nearly all severe cases of the disease over six months, depending on the exact definition used.
The companies said that no new serious safety concerns were identified.
The data was released in a joint company statement and hasn’t been independently reviewed and published in a scientific journal. Nonetheless, it provides an early reassuring sign that the vaccine’s strong efficacy seen in the short-term results will hold up and not fade away quickly.
The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was safe and effective in adolescents as young as 12, the drug companies announced Wednesday in a joint news release.
Data from a trial of the vaccine in nearly 2,300 people between the ages of 12 and 15 will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration in the coming weeks, with the hope that vaccinations could begin before the next school year.
“Across the globe, we are longing for a normal life. This is especially true for our children. The initial results we have seen in the adolescent studies suggest that children are particularly well protected by vaccination,” said Ugur Sahin, chief executive of BioNTech, the German company that developed the vaccine in partnership with U.S. pharmaceutical giant Pfizer.
The vaccine was 100% effective at preventing symptomatic illness within the trial, with 18 cases of covid-19 in the group that received a placebo and none in the group that received the vaccine, the companies said. The vaccine triggered immune responses that were even more robust than those seen in young adults.
The data is the beginning of what many families, eager for normalcy to return, have been waiting to see. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is currently authorized by the FDA for emergency use for people 16 and older. If regulators extend the authorization to younger age groups, Pfizer chief executive Albert Bourla said that vaccinations could begin before the school year.
Last week, Pfizer-BioNTech also started a trial in younger children, ages 6 months to 11 years. That trial will step down in age, establishing a safe dose first in children 5 to 11, then in 2- to 5-year-olds and then in children from 6 months to 2 years.
U.S. biotech firm Moderna is also conducting similar trials to test its coronavirus vaccine in teenagers and young children. Its vaccine is authorized by the FDA for emergency use for people over age 18.
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If you have experienced hip pain, chances are you have probably told yourself it is just part of getting older. If other treatments simply aren’t working and you frequently have hip pain that keeps you from getting a restful night’s sleep, walking up stairs and the activities you enjoy, the Anterior Approach hip replacement surgery may be an option. Read on to find out more about the potential benefits of this procedure.
Potential Benefits of Hip Replacement
▪︎ Pain Relief
▪︎ Improved Mobility
▪︎ More freedom to pursue everyday activities, such as walking and climbing stairs
A joint is a point where multiple bones meet and work together so that you can perform daily tasks like sit, climb stairs and walk comfortably. The hip joint is described as being a “ball and socket” joint due to the joint’s appearance of a ball (femoral head) fitting snugly in a cup-like socket (acetabulum). The ball (femoral head) is located at the top of the thigh bone (femur) and the socket (acetabulum) is part of the pelvis. The area where the bones meet is covered by a slick but firm tissue called cartilage, allowing the joint to move smoothly.
Hip Replacement Overview
All total hip replacements have the same goal: remove the portions of damaged hip joint and replace them with an implant. The implant used is made up of several different components. The individual components are available in many different sizes and materials so that your surgeon can decide which options will be the best fit for your individual needs. These include:
▪︎ Stem: Inserted into the thigh bone (femur) and anchors the implant in place
▪︎ Ball: attaches to the stem and recreates the ball (femoral head)
▪︎ Liner: recreates the smooth cartilage and allows the new ball (femoral head) to glide and rotate
▪︎ Cup: recreates the hip socket (acetabulum)
Direct Anterior Approach Overview
The surgical approach (sometimes called the surgical technique) is the way the surgeon makes their incision so that they can operate on the bones that make up the joint. Most surgeons use what is called the traditional approach, but more are starting to use the Anterior Approach.
Direct Anterior Approach is a relatively new technique in the Southeast Asia region and requires extensive training and expertise. Dr.Phonthakorn Panichkul of the Hip and Knee Center indicates that “Currently, this technique is widely utilized with a high percentage of success in the United States, Canada, and Europe. However in Thailand, with the exception of our team at the Bangkok Hip and Knee Center, this procedure is not as yet readily available. We expect the Direct Anterior Approach to become the standard for hip replacement surgery in the near future”.
The Goals of the Anterior Approach
▪︎ Accelerated recovery time because key muscles are not detached during the operation.
▪︎ Fewer restrictions during recovery. Although each patient responds differently, this procedure seeks to help patients more freely bend their hip and bear their full weight soon after surgery.
▪︎ Reduced scarring because the technique allows for one relatively small incision. Since the incision is on the front side of the leg, you may be spared from the pain of sitting on scar tissue.
▪︎ Stability of the implant sooner after surgery, resulting in part from the fact that they key muscles and tissues are not disturbed during the operation.
▪︎ The Anterior Approach usually requires less tissue disruption, which may lead to faster rehabilitation.
Things to Consider with Your Surgeon before an Anterior Approach Hip Replacement
▪︎ Am I candidate for the Anterior Approach?
▪︎ What are the other hip replacement techniques and technologies available? How do they compare to the Anterior Approach?
▪︎ What are the benefits and risks of Anterior Approach hip replacement surgery?
▪︎ How long will it take to recover and rehabilitate from an Anterior Approach hip replacement surgery?
▪︎ What is my role in recovery and rehabilitation?
▪︎ If I choose to undergo an Anterior Approach hip replacement surgery, will I be able to resume daily activities?
Preparing for SurgeryTo prepare for surgery you need to:
▪︎ Compile a list for your surgeon of all your medications including over-the-counter medications and supplements
▪︎ Quit smoking for at least two weeks prior to surgery (if you currently smoke)
▪︎ Lose weight (based on your surgeon’s directions)
▪︎ Prepare your home for your return from hospital
▪︎ Discuss your recovery with relative and friends who may be caring for you after you leave the hospital
During that time, your hip rehabilitation will begin as ordered by your surgeon and physiotherapist. Your physiotherapist may instruct you to:
▪︎ Begin isometric exercise (tighten muscles without moving the joint) a number of times per day while you are still in bed
▪︎ Move your ankle and other joints
▪︎ Understand the do’s and don’ts of joint replacement recovery
Depending on your individual recovery, your physiotherapist may help you start walking with your new hip.
nce you return home, it is still important to continue rehabilitation as instructed by your doctor and physiotherapist.
The goals of rehabilitation are to:
▪︎ Improve your muscle strength
▪︎ Increase the movement in your new hip joint
▪︎ Protect your new hip
▪︎ Help you resume most of your normal activities
Rehabilitation takes time and commitment. Each person is different and the length of recovery is dependent on your particular situation, overall health and your rehabilitation. When your surgeon feels you are ready, you should be able to resume some, if not most, of your daily activities. Hip replacements may take three to six months to make a full recovery.
Activity after Surgery
After undergoing hip replacement surgery, it is important you have realistic expectations about the types of activities you may participate in during your recovery phase. These activities may include:
▪︎ Sexual Activity
▪︎ Leisure and Sports Activities
▪︎ Work Activities
Activities that may cause high-impact stress on the implant should be avoided.
One of the important ways to support your loved one is to ensure he or she receives the best medical care possible by acting as their patient advocate. This means asking questions when you don’t understand something, educating yourself, being an active member of your loved one’s care team and seeking guidance from qualified medical professionals. This is especially important when your loved one is not able to communicate with their health care providers on their own.
While a caregiver may not have a medical or healthcare background, his or her day-to-day experiences with a loved one can provide critical information, so it is important to stay involved. Your health care professional may rely on this information in order to care for your loved one.
Communicating with Health Care Providers
Avoid communication barriers
▪︎ Talk about how your loved one communicates his/her feelings and concerns – physically, verbally, and emotionally
▪︎ Ask questions when you or loved one have them and make sure you fully understand the information being given to you or the patient
▪︎ Feel comfortable with staff
Your Questions Answered
Here are some common questions people have about hip replacement surgery, rehabilitation, and recovery.
Q: I am a candidate for Anterior Approach hip replacement surgery?
A: Only your orthopedic surgeon can decide if hip replacement is the appropriate treatment for you. You situation will be discussed and the various treatment options available will be provided. The risks and benefits of each will be explained so that an informed decision about your future course of treatment can be made.
Q: Am I too young for hip replacement?
A: Hip replacement is related to need, not age. Total hip replacement surgery is considered to be an effective procedure that can help patients resume a more active lifestyle.
Q: Do I need to take any precautions before future medical procedures?
A: From now on, you must inform any doctors, including dentists, treating you that you have undergone hip replacement surgery. More than likely, antibiotics will be prescribed before a procedure to avoid infection.
Q: I live by myself. To whom can I turn for help during recovery and rehabilitation?
A: You will likely need assistance with your daily activities for several days to a few weeks following hip replacement surgery. If family members or friends are unable to assist you, ask your surgeon about being admitted to a rehabilitation facility for a few days following surgery to get the assistance you need.
Q: How can I help protect my new hip implant?
A: Hip replacements are designed for the normal activities of daily living. Avoiding trauma and high impact activities are helpful in caring for your new hip implant.
For further information contact the Hip and Knee Center
1st floor, Bangkok International Hospital
Open Monday-Friday 08.00 – 20.00 | Sat – Sun 08.00 – 17.00.
If you have torn your meniscus which is a piece of cartilage that is located in the knee joint, you might experience these following signs and symptoms in your knee: knee pain, swelling or stiffness with a popping sensation, especially when twisting or rotating the knee and difficulty straightening knee fully as well as feeling as though the knee is locked in place when trying to move it. Not only accidents, but a torn meniscus can also result from any activity that causes the knee to forcefully twist or rotate, such as aggressive pivoting, certain sports and exercise, falls, sudden stops and turns. Meniscus tears can happen to anyone at any age. Nevertheless, in older adults, degenerative alterations of the knee can potentially contribute to a torn meniscus with little or no trauma. If a torn meniscus is overlooked, it might potentially lead to osteoarthritis in the injured knee.
Get To Know Meniscus
The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of tough, rubbery cartilage that is located in the knee joints between the femur and tibia bones (thighbone and shinbone). The meniscus acts as a shock absorber to cushion the lower part of the leg from the weight of the rest of the body during activities that cause impact to the knee, including standing, walking, running, jumping and other daily tasks. As a shock absorber, the meniscus helps absorb the pressure exerted on the knee joint. It also provides stability and helps distribute body weight by keeping the bones from rubbing together.
Since the meniscus is a relatively avascular structure with a limited peripheral blood supply, if a torn meniscus happens, the poor blood supply to the inner portion of the meniscus makes it difficult for the meniscus to heal. As a result, meniscus tear leads to inability to fully move the affected knee with persistent knee pain. If left untreated, it eventually causes osteoarthritis of the knee.
Signs And Symptoms Of A Torn Meniscus
▪︎ Knee pain, especially when twisting or rotating the knee such as kneeling and squatting;
▪︎ Swelling that might happen suddenly after knee injury or appear temporarily, depending on intensity of activity that involves knee movement;
▪︎ Knee stiffness or difficulty straightening the knee fully and
▪︎ A popping sensation or feeling as though your knee is locked in place when trying to move it.
Diagnosis And Treatment Of A Torn Meniscus
A torn meniscus often can be identified by sports medicine physician during a physical exam. MRI, an imaging test is frequently used to detect this condition by producing detailed images of both hard and soft tissues within the knee. If a meniscus tear is diagnosed, recommended treatments include:
▪︎ Rest and stop using the knee.
▪︎ Avoid activities that aggravate knee pain, especially any activity that twists, rotates or pivots the knee. If knee pain is severe, using crutches can take pressure off the knee and promote healing.
▪︎ Use cold compression. A cold pack or a towel filled with ice cubes can reduce knee pain and swelling. Keeping the knee elevated and taking over-the-counter pain relievers can also help ease knee pain
▪︎ If affected knee remains painful despite rehabilitative therapy, arthroscopic meniscus repair is highly recommended. Since this standard procedure is minimally invasive surgery to repair a torn meniscus, it results in smaller incision, less pain, lowered postoperative complications and reduced traumatic damages to surrounding areas, such as muscles, tissues and other organs, leading to a faster recovery time and a quick return to daily life.
Arthroscopic Meniscus Repair
Since the meniscus acts as a shock absorber to cushion the lower part of the leg from the weight of the rest of the body, knee pain and disability associated with a torn meniscus prompt many people to seek emergency care. If a torn meniscus develops, surgical procedure to repair torn meniscus, known as arthroscopic meniscus repair is vital in order to reduce knee pain and restore knee functions for daily activities, sports and exercise. More importantly, if a torn meniscus is appropriately repaired in time, it can substantially reduce the risks of developing osteoarthritis of the knee in the future. On the contrary, if meniscus tear is left untreated, or tear happens in the location with extremely low blood supply, meniscus repair might not be applicable. In such a case, the meniscus might be surgically trimmed.
Less Pain With Faster Recovery Time
Arthroscopic meniscus repair is a minimally invasive surgical approach. During this procedure, an instrument called arthroscope is inserted through a tiny incision near the affected knee. An arthroscope contains a light and a small camera which transmits enlarged images of the inside of the knee onto a monitor, enabling visualization and therapeutic treatment of the interior of a joint. If necessary, surgical instruments can be inserted through the arthroscope or through additional small incisions in the knee to trim or repair the tear. Due to smaller incision, it results in less pain and damages to surrounding areas as well as faster recovery time and fewer postoperative complications such as stiff knee syndrome (arthrofibrosis) which is the buildup of scar tissue inside the knee, causing the knee joint to shrink and tighten.
After surgery, knee pain will be appropriately managed by interventional pain specialists. The physical therapy process is dependent on the patient’s general physical health and condition following surgery. Postoperative rehabilitation can normally start as soon as possible in order to maintain muscle strength and stability as well as to regain full knee motion and return to normal activity. In some serious cases, patients must refrain from putting weight on that affected knee and limit their knee movement for 4-6 weeks.
Even though a torn meniscus is not considered a life-threatening problem, it largely disturbs daily life and activities. Not only impair quality of life, but untreated meniscus tear can also lead to knee arthritis which is irreversible condition. Ensuring that meniscus is healthy helps prevent degenerative arthritis. If sign or symptom of a torn meniscus indicates, immediate medical attention must be sought to receive accurate diagnosis and effective treatments.
By Syndication Washington Post, Bloomberg · Robert Langreth
Pfizer Inc. said it has begun human safety testing of a new pill to treat the coronavirus that could be used at the first sign of illness.
If it succeeds in trials, the pill could be prescribed early in an infection to block viral replication before patients get very sick. The drug binds to an enzyme called a protease to keep the virus from replicating. Protease-inhibiting medicines have been successful in treating other types of viruses, include HIV and Hepatitis C.
“Given the way that SARS-CoV-2 is mutating and the continued global impact of Covid-19, it appears likely that it will be critical to have access to therapeutic options both now and beyond the pandemic,” said Mikael Dolsten, Pfizer’s Chief Scientific Officer, in a statement.
In an interview, Dolsten said no unexpected problems had been seen in the study so far and that it could generate results within weeks.
The new protease inhibitor is the second such medicine Pfizer has brought into human trials to treat Covid-19. Pfizer is testing another given intravenously to hospitalized virus patients.
Shares of Pfizer were down 1.3% to $35.52 at 11:32 a.m. in New York. Over the past year, the stock has climbed 32%.
Easy-to-use treatments are lacking for early-stage Covid-19 patients. While antibody therapies from Eli Lilly & Co. and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. are authorized in the U.S. for Covid patients who haven’t yet been hospitalized but are at high risk of developing severe symptoms, they must be infused in the hospital or at a doctor’s office.
That has created logistical challenges that have limited their use. Other therapies are intended for sicker people: Gilead Sciences Inc.’s antiviral drug remdesivir must be infused over several days and is approved only for hospitalized patients.
Among major drugmakers, Merck & Co. has one of the few coronavirus pills that is far along in human testing. Its experimental antiviral drug molnupiravir works by a different mechanism than the Pfizer drug and is in late-stage human trials.
If everything continues to go well, Pfizer could begin a much larger combined phase 2-phase 3 trial early in the second quarter, Dolsten said, potentially allowing it to apply for emergency-use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration by the end of this year, depending on how the pandemic evolves.
The drug is likely to be given twice a day for about five days, he said.
“This is really a potential game changer,” Dolsten said.
While initial efficacy testing will focus on people with early infections, Pfizer also plans to explore whether the drug works to protect healthy people who have been exposed to the coronavirus, such as family members or roommates who live with someone who got sick.
Dolsten said Pfizer’s oral protease inhibitor, code-named PF-07321332, had a number of potential advantages. In lab tests, it worked against many coronaviruses, including the original SARS virus and MERS. Additionally, the coronavirus protease doesn’t mutate much, which means the therapy is likely to work equally well against numerous variant strains, he said.
In theory, the protease inhibitor could also be combined with other antiviral drugs, such as the one Merck is developing, Dolsten said.
Pfizer said it plans to share more data on the compound at the American Chemical Society meeting on April 6.